Do You Know How Another Knows To Be?: EpiEPistemology Neuro-semantic programming, NSP

Do You Know How Another Knows To Be?:

If you want to know about yourself or others, this work is for you. It is for everyone. As you read this work it will speak to you about a new way of thinking and being. It will open your eyes to a new approach to life situations. You may not know that when you are: 1. at a cocktail party 2. attending a family gathering 3. meeting friends in a bar 4. on a flight to London in the first-class section 5. playing with one’s grandchildren that unconsciously you automatically know to know-to-be and so, you do not have to worry about how to be. In other words, you do not have to work out how to be in any context of life, whether they are normal social situations or stressful professional ones. The fabric of our subjective reality and the structure of our subjective experience is somehow worked out for us. At a deeper level, it is as if there is a psychological machine that works for us to produce our necessary way of being in any context. This work is about the exploration of how each of us know to be, known as ontology-to-context. It is also about how another knows how you know-to-be, known as Epiepistemology. It is about how a therapist may use this knowledge to help others. In this work, we invite you to learn about yourself and others by exploring your ontology.

  • ASIN: 0969559461

"The Semantic Web is not a separate Web..." quote by Tim Berners-Lee, laser engraved on wooden plaque - Size: 8"x10"

"The Semantic Web is not a separate Web..."

"The Semantic Web is not a separate Web but an extension of the current one, in which information is given well-defined meaning, better enabling computers and people to work in cooperation." quote by Tim Berners-Lee Motivation and inspiration are what gets us out of bed every morning. To give you that drive and touch of magic that you need in your life, why not add some wise words to your home or office today. With the finest thoughts of the greatest minds laser engraved into premium quality beechwood, the words that move you will decorate beautifully your home for years. Perfect for remembering what life is all about. A suitable gift for colleagues, friends and family. Also, it is a fantastic decoration item for shelves and tables. It can also be used as a wall hanging, to decor the plain walls; your choice of texts on these beautiful brown-hue wooden plaques. They carry a beautiful minimalist, antique style, that would not outdate so soon. *Please note that the display sample may not always be a true representation of the final wood product due to the very nature of the wood. Product image colours may vary due to the nature of the wood used and monitor display settings.

  • Color: Wood
  • Brand: Mundus Souvenirs
  • ASIN: B06Y1LWT5C

GOWOS Cat6 Ethernet Cable (20 Pack - 1.5 Feet) Green - 24AWG Network Cable with Gold Plated RJ45 Snagless/Molded/Booted Connector - 10 Gigabit/Sec High Speed LAN Internet/Patch Cable - ETL Listed

GOWOS Cat6 Ethernet Cable (20 Pack - 1.5

Premium Cooper High Performance Category 6 Ethernet Cable For Secure Connections Our professional rj45 cat6 cable is guaranteed to provide exceptional transmission performance and zero signal losses. With a reliable and universal connectivity intended for wired home or office networks, our ethernet cable Cat6 is the perfect computer network cable to connect your computers, laptops, routers, switch boxes, printers, network attached storage (NAS) devices, and more. We also offer cat6 bulk cable packs in 5,10, 50, or 100 packs offering all lengths that best fit your needs. This cat6 pack makes it easier to find and customize your Cat6 cable hub with a number of different lengths and colors to choose from. The snagless design of this Cat 6 network cable ensures easy unplugging while the molded strain relief protects the cable integrity. Consisting of a gray UTP (Unshielded Twisted Pair) cat 6 patch cable with extra protection for the RJ45 connector and clip, this Cat6 lan cable includes a spline to help ensure separation between the pairs which limits cross talk. Wired to the T568B standard, the individual conductors are 24 AWG (American wire gauge) stranded pure copper and the lan patch cords are stranded to improve flexibility. The RJ45 plug features gold connectors to prevent corr...

  • Color: Green
  • Brand: GOWOS
  • ASIN: B07HYBDY12
  • UPC: 795777521024

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of Human Thought Revealed

How to Create a Mind: The Secret of

  • ASIN: B007V65UUG

Isaiah Made Easier, Second Edition

Isaiah Made Easier, Second

  • ASIN: B008NE05P0

The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language (P.S.) (Harper Perennial Modern Classics)

The Language Instinct: How the Mind Creates Language

In this classic, the world's expert on language and mind lucidly explains everything you always wanted to know about language: how it works, how children learn it, how it changes, how the brain computes it, and how it evolved. With deft use of examples of humor and wordplay, Steven Pinker weaves our vast knowledge of language into a compelling story: language is a human instinct, wired into our brains by evolution. The Language Instinct received the William James Book Prize from the American Psychological Association and the Public Interest Award from the Linguistics Society of America. This edition includes an update on advances in the science of language since The Language Instinct was first published.

  • Brand: Pinker, Steven
  • ASIN: 0061336467

Semantic Extension, Subjectification, and Verbalization

Semantic Extension, Subjectification, and

Mika Shindo's Semantic Extension, Subjectification, and Verbalization focuses on semantic extensions of sensory adjectives originating in perception. The aims of this book are to provide systematic accounts of semantic extensions of sensory adjectives from a cognitive perspective, and to document the validity of an empirical approach, using panchronic and corpus-based methods.

  • ASIN: 0761843272

Plastic Glasses and Church Fathers: Semantic Extension From the Ethnoscience Tradition (Oxford Studies in Anthropological Linguistics)

Plastic Glasses and Church Fathers: Semantic Extension From

Meaning seems to shift from context to context; how do we know when someone says "grab a chair" that an ottoman or orange crate will do, but when someone says "let's buy a chair," they won't? Somehow, in spite of this slipperiness, we usually understand each other in conversations, and have straightforward ways of querying each other when we sense a gap in understanding. We seem capable of using ordinary language to communicate with as much precision as we are willing to take the time and effort for--through attention to interactive feedback, and the use of paraphrastic modification, specification, and explication. In Plastic Glasses and Church Fathers, Kronenfeld offers a theory that explains both the usefulness of language's variability of reference and the mechanisms which enable us to understand each other in spite of the variability. His theory is rooted in the tradition of ethnoscience (or cognitive anthropology), a tradition which promotes an ethnography of explicit methodology and mathematically precise theory while remaining responsive to the complexity of particular cultures. Kronenfeld accomplishes three things with his theory. First, he distinguishes prototypic referents from extended referents. Second, he describes the various bases of semantic extensions. Finally he...

  • ASIN: 0195094085

AP® Computer Science Principles Crash Course (Advanced Placement (AP) Crash Course)

AP® Computer Science Principles Crash Course (Advanced Placement

AP® Computer Science Principles Crash Course®A Higher Score in Less Time!REA's AP® Computer Science Principles Crash Course® is the top choice for the last-minute studier or any Computer Science Principles student who wants a quick refresher on the course. Are you crunched for time? Have you started studying for your Advanced Placement® Computer Science Principles exam yet? How will you memorize everything you need to know before the test? Do you wish there was a fast and easy way to study for the exam AND boost your score? If this sounds like you, don't panic. REA's Crash Course for AP® Computer Science Principles is just what you need. Our Crash Course gives you: Targeted Review - Study Only What You Need to Know. The review is based on an in-depth analysis of the AP® Computer Science Principles course description outline and sample AP® test questions. It covers only the information tested on the exam, so you can make the most of your valuable study time. Expert Test-taking Strategies and Advice. Written by Jacqueline Corricelli, an award-winning AP® Computer Science Principles teacher and test development expert, the book gives you the topics and critical context that will matter most on exam day. Crash Course® relies on the author’s extensive analysis of the test...

  • ASIN: B078T3Z6SJ

Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian Account of Human Language and Cognition

Relational Frame Theory: A Post-Skinnerian Account of Human

This volume goes beyond theory and gives the empirical and conceptual tools to conduct an experimental analysis of virtually every substantive topic in human language and cognition, both basic and applied. It challenges behavioral psychology to abandon many of the specific theoretical formulations of its most prominent historical leader in the domain of complex human behavior, especially in human language and cognition, and approach the field from a new direction. It will be of interest to behavior theorists, cognitive psychologists, therapists, and educators.

  • ASIN: 1475775210

Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics 2: Semantics, Discourse and Applications (Cognitive Science)

Natural Language Processing and Computational Linguistics 2: Semantics,

Natural Language Processing (NLP) is a scientific discipline which is found at the intersection of fields such as Artificial Intelligence, Linguistics, and Cognitive Psychology. This book presents in four chapters the state of the art and fundamental concepts of key NLP areas. Are presented in the first chapter the fundamental concepts in lexical semantics, lexical databases, knowledge representation paradigms, and ontologies. The second chapter is about combinatorial and formal semantics. Discourse and text representation as well as automatic discourse segmentation and interpretation, and anaphora resolution are the subject of the third chapter. Finally, in the fourth chapter, I will cover some aspects of large scale applications of NLP such as software architecture and their relations to cognitive models of NLP as well as the evaluation paradigms of NLP software. Furthermore, I will present in this chapter the main NLP applications such as Machine Translation (MT), Information Retrieval (IR), as well as Big Data and Information Extraction such as event extraction, sentiment analysis and opinion mining.

  • ASIN: B077WHP9HH

Log-Linear Models, Extensions, and Applications (Neural Information Processing series)

Log-Linear Models, Extensions, and Applications (Neural Information Processing

Advances in training models with log-linear structures, with topics including variable selection, the geometry of neural nets, and applications.Log-linear models play a key role in modern big data and machine learning applications. From simple binary classification models through partition functions, conditional random fields, and neural nets, log-linear structure is closely related to performance in certain applications and influences fitting techniques used to train models. This volume covers recent advances in training models with log-linear structures, covering the underlying geometry, optimization techniques, and multiple applications. The first chapter shows readers the inner workings of machine learning, providing insights into the geometry of log-linear and neural net models. The other chapters range from introductory material to optimization techniques to involved use cases. The book, which grew out of a NIPS workshop, is suitable for graduate students doing research in machine learning, in particular deep learning, variable selection, and applications to speech recognition. The contributors come from academia and industry, allowing readers to view the field from both perspectives.ContributorsAleksandr Aravkin, Avishy Carmi, Guillermo A. Cecchi, Anna Choromanska, Li Deng...

  • ASIN: 0262039508

The Unfolding of Language: An Evolutionary Tour of Mankind's Greatest Invention

The Unfolding of Language: An Evolutionary Tour of

Blending the spirit of Eats, Shoots & Leaves with the science of The Language Instinct, an original inquiry into the development of that most essential-and mysterious-of human creations: LanguageLanguage is mankind's greatest invention-except, of course, that it was never invented." So begins linguist Guy Deutscher's enthralling investigation into the genesis and evolution of language. If we started off with rudimentary utterances on the level of "man throw spear," how did we end up with sophisticated grammars, enormous vocabularies, and intricately nuanced degrees of meaning?Drawing on recent groundbreaking discoveries in modern linguistics, Deutscher exposes the elusive forces of creation at work in human communication, giving us fresh insight into how language emerges, evolves, and decays. He traces the evolution of linguistic complexity from an early "Me Tarzan" stage to such elaborate single-word constructions as the Turkish sehirlilestiremediklerimizdensiniz ("you are one of those whom we couldn't turn into a town dweller"). Arguing that destruction and creation in language are intimately entwined, Deutscher shows how these processes are continuously in operation, generating new words, new structures, and new meanings.As entertaining as it is erudite, The Unfolding of Langu...

  • Brand: Holt Paperbacks
  • ASIN: 0805080120

Semantic Extension and Restriction: A case of Shona

Semantic Extension and Restriction: A case of

Language, just like any other aspect of culture, is bound to undergo some metamorphosis. Semantics is one aspect of language in which change is inevitable.This book is an attempt to show how semantic change, in the form of extension (generalisation) and restriction (narrowing) take place in Shona. The book not only look at how extension and restriction apply in the construction of meaning in Shona, but it also looks at the relationship between a word's original meaning and its the new (extended or restricted) meaning.

  • Brand: Angeline Masowa Masowa Angeline
  • ASIN: 3844315683

Automatic Extension of Semantic Lexicons with a Bootstrapping Algorithm: Using Corpora to Learn Semantic Features

Automatic Extension of Semantic Lexicons with a Bootstrapping

Where is the information I need in this huge pile of data? This question will be asked more and more in our information society and the only way to solve it on a large scale is to process the data automatically. Since most often this data is unstructured and available only in natural language, we need to understand the inner structure of natural languages and employ the tools of computer science to effectively extract the information we need. For this task to be successful a good lexicon is needed. Many fields of advanced natural language processing, such as information retrieval, word sense disambiguation or semantic web applications are based on lexical information. Because the manual creation of high quality lexical resources is very expensive and time consuming, there is a need for automatic or semi-automatic tools to create these. This book investigates and extends a bootstrapping approach which permits to extend high quality lexical resources with the help of very large corpora. It is directed towards researchers or technical staff interested in either automatically creating a new lexicon or extending their general or domain specific lexicons to new domains.

  • ASIN: 3639031377

The Transhumanism Handbook

The Transhumanism

Modern humanity with some 5,000 years of recorded history has been experiencing growing pains, with no end in sight. It is high time for humanity to grow up and to transcend itself by embracing transhumanism. Transhumanism offers the most inclusive ideology for all ethnicities and races, the religious and the atheists, conservatives and liberals, the young and the old regardless of socioeconomic status, gender identity, or any other individual qualities. This book expounds on contemporary views and practical advice from more than 70 transhumanists. Astronaut Neil Armstrong said on the Apollo 11 moon landing in 1969, “One small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.” Transhumanism is the next logical step in the evolution of humankind, and it is the existential solution to the long-term survival of the human race.

  • ASIN: B07TZ3LMV3

Automated Theorem Proving in Software Engineering

Automated Theorem Proving in Software

Growing demands for the quality, safety, and security of software can only be satisfied by the rigorous application of formal methods during software design. This book methodically investigates the potential of first-order logic automated theorem provers for applications in software engineering. Illustrated by complete case studies on protocol verification, verification of security protocols, and logic-based software reuse, this book provides techniques for assessing the prover's capabilities and for selecting and developing an appropriate interface architecture.


Sentential Reference and the Foundations of Semantics

Sentential Reference and the Foundations of

It is clear that names and other subsentential expressions have referents. But what about whole sentences? What, if anything, do they refer to? Frege tried to answer this question. Unfortunately, the answer he gave ('they refer to their own truth-values') is demonstrably false and his argument for it is demonstrably broken. But Frege's otherwise worthless argument does have one virtue: When the problems with it are identified, it becomes clear how to construct a semantic system that is coherent, data-friendly, and intuitively correct. Frege's semantics has none of these virtues, and neither do the semantic systems with which philosophers have tried to replace it. For example, Frege's semantic system has the absurd consequence that there is no word that refers to snow in the sentence "it is true that snow is white," and so does the semantic system with which Donald Davidson tried to replace Frege's system. Also, Frege's semantics has the consequence that singular terms, e.g. occurrences of "that man," and quantifiers, e.g. "some man", are in distinct semantic categories; and, more generally, that a sentence's grammatical form and logical form are completely out of alignment. Given that we understand sentences on the basis of their grammatical structures, Fr...

  • ASIN: B00SCJ9K8O

Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows: An Introduction (Scientific Computation)

Large Eddy Simulation for Incompressible Flows: An Introduction


Rigid Flexibility: The Logic of Intelligence (Applied Logic Series Book 34)

Rigid Flexibility: The Logic of Intelligence (Applied Logic

This book is the most comprehensive description of the decades-long Non-Axiomatic Reasoning System (NARS) project, including its philosophical foundation, methodological consideration, conceptual design details, implications in the related fields, and its similarities and differences to many related works in cognitive science. While most current works in Artificial Intelligence (AI) focus on individual aspects of intelligence and cognition, NARS is designed and developed to attack the AI problem as a whole.


Advances in Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, and Performance: Proceedings of the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, ... Intelligent Systems and Computing Book 956)

Advances in Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, and Performance:

This book brings together studies broadly addressing human error from different disciplines and perspectives. It discusses topics such as human performance; human variability and reliability analysis; medical, driver and pilot error, as well as automation error; root cause analyses; and the cognitive modeling of human error. In addition, it highlights cutting-edge applications in safety management, defense, security, transportation, process controls, and medicine, as well as more traditional fields of application. Based on the AHFE 2019 International Conference on Human Error, Reliability, Resilience, and Performance, held on July 24-28, 2019, Washington D.C., USA, the book includes experimental papers, original reviews, and reports on case studies, as well as meta-analyses, technical guidelines, best practice and methodological papers. It offers a timely reference guide for researchers and practitioners dealing with human error in a diverse range of fields.


Truth Be Told: Sense, Quantity, and Extension (Berkeley Insights in Linguistics and Semiotics Book 97)

Truth Be Told: Sense, Quantity, and Extension (Berkeley

Truth Be Told explains how truth and falsity result from relations that sentences have to the contexts in which they occur and the circumstances at which they are evaluated. It offers a precise conception of truth and a clear diagnosis of the Liar and Grelling paradoxes. Currently, semantic theory employs generalized quantifiers as the extensions of noun phrases in explanations of the composition of truth-values. Generalized quantifiers are direct descendants of the second-level functions to truth-values that Gottlob Frege considered to be the referents of his unrestricted quantifiers. During the past fifty years, Frege’s original quantifier referents have been revised and generalized with the result that now every noun phrase, of any type, has a generalized quantifier as its extension. This evolution of noun-phrase extensions from Frege’s referents has retained two of the original theory’s flaws. First, generalized quantifiers inherit a troublesome intrusion of predicate extensions. Second, the senses of names and deictic terms are still not identified, with the result that their extensions are not sharply distinguished from their referents. Truth Be Told frees semantic theory from these Fregean flaws. Its theory of sense, quantity, and extension yields an intuitive compos...

  • ASIN: B0766176SW

The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and the Laws of Physics (Oxford Landmark Science)

The Emperor's New Mind: Concerning Computers, Minds, and

BRAND NEW, Exactly same ISBN as listed, Please double check ISBN carefully before ordering.

  • Brand: Oxford University Press USA
  • ASIN: 0198784929

Semantic Extensions, Pidgins, and Autonomy: a Study of Kamtok

Semantic Extensions, Pidgins, and Autonomy: a Study of

This work is a scientific venture into the semantics of Kamtok, the variety of West African Pidgin English (WAPE) spoken in Cameroon. It arose from the need to carry out more linguistic studies on this linguistic variety. As a matter of fact, most research works on Kamtok have dealt with sociolinguistic issues, thus overlooking the variety's purely linguistic aspects. This study therefore falls within cognitive semantics, building on the Idealised Cognitive Models (ICM's) approach as developed by Lakoff (1987) and focusing on the study of specific English words found in the Kamtok translation of the Gospel according to Saint Matthew. The findings of this research endeavour demonstrate that though Kamtok words mostly originate from the English language, these words have developed new meanings, which are often the result of Kamtok speakers' background and experiences. Based on this, the author argues that Kamtok should not be considered as a mere variety of English, but rather as a fully autonomous language. ISBN 9783862889082. LINCOM Studies in Pidgin & Creole Linguistics 19. 2018.

  • ASIN: 3862889084

Pairwise Comparison Matrices and their Fuzzy Extension: Multi-criteria Decision Making with a New Fuzzy Approach (Studies in Fuzziness and Soft Computing)

Pairwise Comparison Matrices and their Fuzzy Extension: Multi-criteria

This book offers the first comprehensive and critical literature review of fuzzy pairwise comparison methods derived from methods originally developed for crisp pairwise comparison matrices. It proposes new fuzzy extensions of these methods and provides a detailed study of the differences and analogies between all the reviewed methods, as well as a detailed description of their drawbacks, with the help of many numerical examples. In order to prevent the drawbacks related to the reviewed fuzzy pairwise comparison methods, the book introduces constrained fuzzy arithmetic in fuzzy extension of the pairwise comparison methods. It proposes new fuzzy pairwise comparison methods based on constrained fuzzy arithmetic and critically compares them with the reviewed methods. It describes the application of the newly developed methods to incomplete large-dimensional pairwise comparison matrices showcased in a real-life case study. Written for researchers, graduate and PhD students interested in multi-criteria decision making methods based on both crisp and fuzzy pairwise comparison matrices, this self-contained book offers an overview of cutting-edge research and all necessary information to understand the described tools and use them in real-world applications.

  • ASIN: 3319777149

Boolean Semantics for Natural Language (Studies in Linguistics and Philosophy)

Boolean Semantics for Natural Language (Studies in Linguistics

In the spring of 1978, one of the authors of this book was sitting in on a course in logic for linguists given by the other author. In attempting to present some of Montague's insights in an elementary way (hopefully avoid­ ing the notation which many find difficult at first), the authors began dis­ cussions aimed towards the construction of a simple model-theoretical semantic apparatus which could be applied directly to a small English-like language and used to illustrate the methods of formal logical interpretation. In these discussions two points impressed themselves on us. First, our task could be simplified by using boolean algebras and boolean homomorphisms in the models; and second, the boolean approach we were developing had much more widespread relevance to the logical structure of English than we first thought. During the summer and fall of 1978 we continued work on the system, proving the more fundamental theorems (including what we have come to call the Justification Theorem) and outlining the way in which an intensional interpretation scheme could be developed which made use of the boolean approach (which was originally strictly extensional). We presented our findings in a monograph (Keenan and Faltz, 1978) which the UCLA Linguistics Department kindly published as ...

  • ASIN: 9027718423

The Routledge Handbook of Semantics (Routledge Handbooks in Linguistics)

The Routledge Handbook of Semantics (Routledge Handbooks in

The Routledge Handbook of Semantics provides a broad and state-of-the-art survey of this field, covering semantic research at both word and sentence level. It presents a synoptic view of the most important areas of semantic investigation, including contemporary methodologies and debates, and indicating possible future directions in the field. Written by experts from around the world, the 29 chapters cover key issues and approaches within the following areas: meaning and conceptualisation; meaning and context; lexical semantics; semantics of specific phenomena; development, change and variation. The Routledge Handbook of Semantics is essential reading for researchers and postgraduate students working in this area.

  • ASIN: 0415661730

Game of Life Cellular Automata

Game of Life Cellular

In the late 1960s British mathematician John Conway invented a virtual mathematical machine that operates on a two-dimensional array of square cell. Each cell takes two states, live and dead. The cells’ states are updated simultaneously and in discrete time. A dead cell comes to life if it has exactly three live neighbours. A live cell remains alive if two or three of its neighbours are alive, otherwise the cell dies. Conway’s Game of Life became the most programmed solitary game and the most known cellular automaton. The book brings together results of forty years of study into computational, mathematical, physical and engineering aspects of The Game of Life cellular automata. Selected topics include phenomenology and statistical behaviour; space-time dynamics on Penrose tilling and hyperbolic spaces; generation of music; algebraic properties; modelling of financial markets; semi-quantum extensions; predicting emergence; dual-graph based analysis; fuzzy, limit behaviour and threshold scaling; evolving cell-state transition rules; localization dynamics in quasi-chemical analogues of GoL; self-organisation towards criticality; asynochrous implementations.The volume is unique because it gives a comprehensive presentation of the theoretical and experimental foundations, cutting-...


Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Applied Sciences and Engineering: From Fundamentals to Extensions and Learning Algorithms (Intelligent Systems Reference Library)

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps for Applied Sciences and Engineering:

Fuzzy Cognitive Maps (FCM) constitute cognitive models in the form of fuzzy directed graphs consisting of two basic elements: the nodes, which basically correspond to “concepts” bearing different states of activation depending on the knowledge they represent, and the “edges” denoting the causal effects that each source node exercises on the receiving concept expressed through weights. Weights take values in the interval [-1,1], which denotes the positive, negative or neutral causal relationship between two concepts. An FCM can be typically obtained through linguistic terms, inherent to fuzzy systems, but with a structure similar to the neural networks, which facilitates data processing, and has capabilities for training and adaptation.During the last 10 years, an exponential growth of published papers in FCMs was followed showing great impact potential. Different FCM structures and learning schemes have been developed, while numerous studies report their use in many contexts with highly successful modeling results.  The aim of this book is to fill the existing gap in the literature concerning fundamentals, models, extensions and learning algorithms for FCMs in knowledge engineering. It comprehensively covers the state-of-the-art FCM modeling and learning methods, with al...

  • ASIN: 3642397387

Handbook of Philosophical Logic: Volume II: Extensions of Classical Logic (Synthese Library) (Volume 2)

Handbook of Philosophical Logic: Volume II: Extensions of

The chapters in the present volume go beyond 'classical' extensional logic with respect to one important factor: they all include among the semantic constituents representations of so-called 'possible worlds'. The inclusion of such 'indices' has turned out to be the semantic mainstay in dealing with a number of issues having to do with intensional features of natural and artificial languages. It is, of course, an open question whether 'possible world' semantics is in the final analysis the proper solution to the many problems and puzzles intensional constructions raise for the logical analysis of the many varieties of discourse. At present, there seem to be about as many opponents as proponents with regard to the usefulness of having the semantics of intensional languages based on possible world constructs. Some attempts to come to grips with intensional phenomena which are not couched in the possible world framework are discussed in Volume IV of the Handbook. Chapter 1 is an extensive survey of the main systems of (propositional) modal logic including the most important meta-mathematical results and the techniques used in establishing these. It introduces the basic terminology and semantic machinery applied in one way or another in many of the subsequent chapters. Chapter 2 disc...

  • ASIN: 9400962614



This book is the second edition of M.T. Somashekara’s earlier book titled Programming in C++, under the new title Object-Oriented Programming with C++. In consonance with the new title, two chapters—one explaining the concepts of object-oriented programming and the other on object oriented software development—have been added, respectively, at the beginning and end of the book. Substantial improvements have been effected in all chapters on C++. The book also carries a new chapter titled Standard Template Library. The book covers the C++ language thoroughly, from basic concepts through advanced topics such as encapsulation, polymorphism, inheritance, and exception handling. It presents C++ in a pedagogically sound way, giving many program examples to highlight the features and benefits of each of its concepts. The book is suitable for all engineering and science students including the students of computer applications for learning the C++ language from the first principles. KEY FEATURES : •Logical flow of concepts starting from the preliminary topics to the major topics. •Programs for each concept to illustrate its significance and scope. •Complete explanation of each program with emphasis on its core segment. •Chapter-end summary, review questions and programming ex...

  • ASIN: B00K7YGM8S

Extension of the Fuzzy Sugeno Integral Based on Generalized Type-2 Fuzzy Logic (SpringerBriefs in Computational Intelligence)

Extension of the Fuzzy Sugeno Integral Based on

This book presents an extension of the aggregation operator of the generalized interval type-2 Sugeno integral using generalized type-2 fuzzy logic. This extension enables it to handle higher levels of uncertainty when adding any number of sources and types of information in a wide variety of decision-making applications. The authors also demonstrate that the extended aggregation operator offers better performance than other traditional or extended operators. The book is a valuables reference resource for students and researchers working on theory and applications of fuzzy logic in various areas of application where decision making is performed under high levels of uncertainty, such as pattern recognition, time series prediction, intelligent control and manufacturing.

  • ASIN: B07Q6K3J2Q

Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation in Multilingual Text Generation (The Springer International Series in Engineering and Computer Science Book 492)

Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation in Multilingual Text

In knowledge-based natural language generation, issues of formal knowledge representation meet with the linguistic problems of choosing the most appropriate verbalization in a particular situation of utterance. Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation in Multilingual Text Generation presents a new approach to systematically linking the realms of lexical semantics and knowledge represented in a description logic. For language generation from such abstract representations, lexicalization is taken as the central step: when choosing words that cover the various parts of the content representation, the principal decisions on conveying the intended meaning are made. A preference mechanism is used to construct the utterance that is best tailored to parameters representing the context. Lexical Semantics and Knowledge Representation in Multilingual Text Generation develops the means for systematically deriving a set of paraphrases from the same underlying representation with the emphasis on events and verb meaning. Furthermore, the same mapping mechanism is used to achieve multilingual generation: English and German output are produced in parallel, on the basis of an adequate division between language-neutral and language-specific (lexical and grammatical) knowl...

  • ASIN: B000VHV5EW

Particle Verbs in English: A Cognitive Linguistic Perspective

Particle Verbs in English: A Cognitive Linguistic

This book explains why cognitive linguistics offers a plausible theoretical framework for a systematic and unified analysis of the syntax and semantics of particle verbs. It explores the meaning of the verb + particle syntax, the particle placement of transitive particle verbs, how particle placement is related to idiomaticity, and the relationship between idiomaticity and semantic extension. It also offers valuable linguistic implications for future studies on complex linguistic constructions using a cognitive linguistic approach, as well as insightful practical implications for the learning and teaching of English particle verbs. 

  • ASIN: B07P77L1DD

Cognitive Structural Realism: A Radical Solution to the Problem of Scientific Representation (Studies in Brain and Mind Book 14)

Cognitive Structural Realism: A Radical Solution to the

In this book, the author develops a new form of structural realism and deals with the problem of representation. The work combines two distinguished developments of the Semantic View of Theories, namely Structural Realism (SR), a flourishing theory from contemporary philosophy of science, and Ronald Giere and colleagues’ Cognitive Models of Science approach (CMSA).Readers will see how replacing the model-theoretic structures that are at issue in SR with connectionist networks and activations patterns (which are the formal tools of computational neuroscience) helps us to deal with the problem of representation. The author suggests that cognitive structures are not only the precise formal tools for regimenting the structure of scientific theories but also the tools that the biological brain uses to capture the essential features (i.e., structures) of its environment. Therefore, replacing model-theoretic structures with cognitive structures allows us to account for the theories-reality relationship on the basis of the most reliable theories of neurology. This is how a new form of SR, called Cognitive Structural Realism (CSR) is introduced through this book, which articulates and defends CSR, and shows how two diverging branches of SVT can be reconciled.This ground-breaking work wi...

  • ASIN: B07N8RP7XR

Extensions of Dynamic Programming for Combinatorial Optimization and Data Mining (Intelligent Systems Reference Library Book 146)

Extensions of Dynamic Programming for Combinatorial Optimization and

Dynamic programming is an efficient technique for solving optimization problems. It is based on breaking the initial problem down into simpler ones and solving these sub-problems, beginning with the simplest ones. A conventional dynamic programming algorithm returns an optimal object from a given set of objects. This book develops extensions of dynamic programming, enabling us to (i) describe the set of objects under consideration; (ii) perform a multi-stage optimization of objects relative to different criteria; (iii) count the number of optimal objects; (iv) find the set of Pareto optimal points for bi-criteria optimization problems; and (v) to study relationships between two criteria. It considers various applications, including optimization of decision trees and decision rule systems as algorithms for problem solving, as ways for knowledge representation, and as classifiers; optimization of element partition trees for rectangular meshes, which are used in finite element methods for solving PDEs; and multi-stage optimization for such classic combinatorial optimization problems as matrix chain multiplication, binary search trees, global sequence alignment, and shortest paths. The results presented are useful for researchers in combinatorial optimization, data mining, knowledge ...

  • ASIN: B07D7RSC33

Information Technology Rethought as Memory Extension: Toward an integral cogntive theory of memory and technology.

Information Technology Rethought as Memory Extension: Toward an

In this book, information technology is rethought as memory extension (extended memory technology), going beyond the common understanding of traditional information technology, which is based on memory-desynchronized data and documents. In the first chapters, the author discusses the basic idea of (language-based) technology in philosophy and IT. A universal cognitive memory process theory is introduced and developed into the idea of a memory-extending basic information technology. Some concrete prototype features are introduced to demonstrate practical applications of the theoretical work.

  • ASIN: 1495460711

Semantic Extension Based Internet Information Supervision (Chinese Edition)

Semantic Extension Based Internet Information Supervision (Chinese

It is a monograph discussing Internet information supervision. The first chapter gives Internet information supervision structure, the second chapter gives semantic extension based Internet information supervision mechanism, the third chapter gives webpage sorting technique that changes learning principles, the fourth chapter gives a concept extension based searching model. It provide information supervision department semantic information searching method to resolve literally free extension searching issues.

  • ASIN: 7562252696

EXQUEL: A semantic extension to QUEL (Memorandum)

EXQUEL: A semantic extension to QUEL

  • ASIN: B0007354CE

Leo Esakia on Duality in Modal and Intuitionistic Logics (Outstanding Contributions to Logic Book 4)

Leo Esakia on Duality in Modal and Intuitionistic

This volume is dedicated to Leo Esakia's contributions to the theory of modal and intuitionistic systems. Consisting of 10 chapters, written by leading experts, this volume discusses Esakia’s original contributions and consequent developments that have helped to shape duality theory for modal and intuitionistic logics and to utilize it to obtain some major results in the area.Beginning with a chapter which explores Esakia duality for S4-algebras, the volume goes on to explore Esakia duality for Heyting algebras and its generalizations to weak Heyting algebras and implicative semilattices. The book also dives into the Blok-Esakia theorem and provides an outline of the intuitionistic modal logic KM which is closely related to the Gödel-Löb provability logic GL. One chapter scrutinizes Esakia’s work interpreting modal diamond as the derivative of a topological space within the setting of point-free topology. The final chapter in the volume is dedicated to the derivational semantics of modal logic and other related issues.

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